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The Role of Dental Stem Cells in Orthodontics

October 6th, 2018

The loss of a tooth is a condition that can be caused by multiple circumstances. Replacing the tooth is essential for health and cosmetic reasons. Tooth tissue engineering is a potential treatment that stretches further than existing methods. Tooth engineering is a new approach using stem cells from teeth.

What Are Dental Stem Cells?

These are stem cells in teeth. The stem cells are present in the dental pulp, which is the soft living tissue in your teeth. The best time to gather dental stem cells is when children lose their baby teeth. There are other sources of teeth stem cells such as the developed periodontal ligament and the dental follicle. Stem cells are cells that have the capability to self-renew and are categorized according to the range of cell types they can differentiate into.

Tooth Replication

Stem cells are capable of replication indefinitely. Scientists all across the globe have been trying to discover what type of stem cells can be induced into becoming new cells or different types of tissue. Some dental pulp stem cells can be transformed into neurons.

Stem Cell Therapy

Stem cell therapy has gained interested worldwide from researchers. Stem cell therapy in orthodontics has not been investigated. The therapeutic ultrasound, known as the low-intensity pulsed ultrasound, was introduced in 2002 during a mandibular distraction osteogenesis in rabbits. An intense amount of investigations have been conducted regarding the molecular process of therapeutic ultrasounds and the potential future it has in orthodontics.

Types of Dental Stem Cells

Dental Follicle Progenitor Cells:
The dental follicle is a loose mesenchymal tissue that is circled around the developing tooth germ. It engages in periodontal progenitor cell formation.

Stem Cells from Apical Papilla:
The apical papilla of permanent immature teeth contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs are a certain type of adult stem cell that decreases inflammation, reduces scarring, and enhances the function of your immune system.

Dental Pulp Stem Cells:
Dental pulp stem cells are cells that are isolated from the pulp tissue of third molars that have been extracted.

Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells:
Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are stem cells that are located in the perivascular area of the periodontium, which is the tissue that surrounds the teeth. They are responsible for regenerating periodontal elements such as the alveolar bone, cementum, and the periodontal ligament.